The Oropharynx Discussion Homework

HOMEWORK 2 Instructions: Provide complete and concise answers to questions, do not include questions or scenario, and submit to assigned drop box by deadline. Use scholarly writing for all answers. Include APA style title page, citations, and reference list. Use correct grammar, complete sentences, paragraph structure, and professional terms. Use scholarly sources (e.g., textbook, journals, government agencies) less than 5 years old to support answers. Paraphrase content (i.e., rephrase in your own words), cite/reference source, and do not use quotes. Part 1, Oropharynx: 1. Describe 2 common problems/disorders in oropharynx (mouth, throat) of the elderly. Discuss pathophysiologic changes at the tissue level and relate them to abnormal assessment findings. (20 points) 2. Provide at least 2 evidence-based health promotion recommendations for oral health and explain the need/benefit. (15 points) Part 2, ENT: Kesha Marks is a 38-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency department to rule out injury related to a fall while bicycling. She was wearing a helmet. Examination data: Alert and slightly anxious female in no distress. Her vital signs are: heart rate of 78 beats/min, respirations of 18 breaths/min, blood pressure 150/90 mmHg, temperature of 98.5 degrees Fahrenheit, and pain 2/10 (0-10 scale) in the area of her facial ecchymoses. Upon inspection, she has some edema and ecchymoses on the left side of the face. Inspection of the oropharynx (mouth, throat) reveals she has all her natural teeth with some yellow staining and fillings noted. The gums and buccal mucosa are intact without any frank bleeding. The palatine tonsils are +2; and the uvula rises midline. A mass is noted at the left base of her tongue. The mass is pale pink with a red, ulcerated center and no obvious exudate. The mass is tender, firm, and non-mobile. There is full range of motion and strength of the tongue. Her speech is clear. There are two palpable, enlarged posterior cervical lymph nodes on the left neck. Subjective data: Upon further questioning, she reports first noticing the lump about two months ago, but it seems to be getting larger and “gets in the way” when she talks and makes it difficult to swallow some foods. She reports an unintentional 22-pound weight loss due to poor appetite over the past two months. She reports a history of hypertension, but does not take prescribed medication because her blood pressure is only a “little” high. She reports smoking ½ pack of cigarettes per day since high school. For Ms. Marks, 3. Identify potential medical diagnosis(es) related to abnormalities in the ENT. Explain abnormal findings that support diagnosis. (20 points) 4. Identify all NANDA nursing diagnoses labels (just the label!) that apply to this patient (e.g., impaired swallowing). Identify the priority (#1) nursing diagnosis label; and for the (#1) nursing diagnosis label, explain the nursing interventions to address the identified problem. Provide evidence-based rationale to explain the need and/or benefit of each intervention. For interventions, include what the nurse should “monitor/assess”, “do”, and “teach” to the client. (20 points) 5. Discuss one potential healthcare referral need for the client and explain the need and/or benefit.

Effective communication is essential for an organization. Written and verbal communication allows the passage of messages from one person to another. Ideally, it reduces misunderstandings, creates confidence, and allows an adequate flow of information to the relevant individuals. In an organization, written communication is more effective than verbal. It conveys complex messages, provides evidence for recording, maintains application uniformity, communicates with a large audience, and creates fewer interactions.

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Some of the mechanisms that an individual can use to enhance effective communication at the workplace are; relating ideas perfectly, giving feedback where necessary, engaging others in communication, and listening to others ask they communicate. While communicating, leaders should consider creating an environment for effective communication (Dye, 2017). When passing information, an individual should assume that barriers to effective communication are eradicated. Eliminating barriers creates an atmosphere in which it is easy for listeners to understand what someone communicates. Ineffective communication creates distortion of the intended message.


Dye, C. F. (2017). Healthcare leadership: Essential values and skills (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. ISBN: 13: 978-1-56793-846-3

Post B)

I feel that it is important to communicate effectively both in written and verbal forms, because it helps people from getting confused or information being misunderstood. A way to effectively improve communication at work would be to focus on the needs of followers, and recognize others. When communicating with coworkers or managers it is important to make sure you are actively listening, explain what you are asking for, and taking others into consideration. Communicating effectively is important when properly implementing decisions so that the telephone game does not interfere or to properly implement the trickle-down decisions. It is important that the leader communicates effectively in both written and verbal forms to properly have the information trickle down to keep the others organized and influenced. It is also important to have the leader communicate effectively because it ensures what is said is heard. Some ways to make sure what you communicate was heard are to ask questions after you are done communicating, communicate in a way everyone will understand, and to keep it simple. If a person doesn’t communicate effectively the telephone game can occur. An example of the telephone game I have experienced was at my current job where my manager told the assistant manager what she needed the others to do, but the message never got relayed to us and we got in trouble. Communicating with others using these tactics will make sure what you said was heard.

International online fraud has massively increased during Covid-19. Is there anything that can be done to prevent this type of criminal activity from happening? Discuss by using 2 or more examples.

Key points to note: – Harvard system of referencing

TOTAL of 5 pages (This is a group assignment so only 1 page is required except for the reference)

Font should be TIMES NEW ROMAN (size 12)

Students should use at least THREE reliable ACADEMIC SOURCES in their assignments, namely academic journal articles or books, including the compulsory academic source on your chosen topic.

Compulsory Source:

Chawki, M 2021,‘Cybercrime in the Context of COVID-19’, in K Arai (ed.), Intelligent Computing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp.986–1002.

Assignment breakdown: –

1) Categories of cybercrime (causes, why it increased, little info from that paper), Cybercrime tools/software, by other group member

2) Real-world cases (1 or 2 during a pandemic), Current occurring crime news (1 or 2 examples) (describe in detail about the case, how it affected the targeted organisation, how it affects the victims), by other group member

3) Measures/protection against cybercrime (where to seek help if you are a victim of cybercrime, how to avoid cybercrime, new laws made in covid etc, increase awareness in public, policies, penalties received under cybercrime laws), by other group member ( penalties), by other group member(policies), 😇 by me (increase in public awareness)

4) Statistical overview/Appendix/Describe the graph (graphs, pie chart with relation to covid) Optional part (if anyone wants they can put graphs)

5) References (everbody needs to do their own references)

Use powerful sources of information: – such as US Department of Justice (2008). Strategy to Combat International Organized Crime.

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