The nature of Science evaluation paper

BIO 100 Assignment #1

Directions: Answer the following questions (in red) with short paragraphs. Excellence in writing and your ability to defend your answers is important (and will be rewarded!) Point value proceeds each questions. There are 60 points total

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PLEASE NOTE : You may discuss the questions, however the submitted answers must be in your OWN words. Evidence of copying another’s work or copying from internet sites is strictly forbidden. Failure to follow these rules about sharing quiz material is evidence of academic dishonesty and has severe consequences. (Please see syllabus regarding plagiarism).


Part I :The Nature of Science (10 points )

We trust the methodology of “Science” to provide us with facts that will enhance our lives and our understanding of the world around us. But, is science always right?

Modern science

False Assumptions in Science:

Image result for health ranger



Mike Adams is the editor of The Health Ranger. Adams has lost many family members to cancer and believes we need to reconstruct how we view science in order to heal patients or prevent disease. He proposes that we are leaving out many possibilities when it comes to “cause and effect”. Visit his Health Ranger site at:


(1) visit the website (above) Select two of the Health Ranger’s “Ten false assumptions in science”. Do you agree or disagree with his point of view? Why or why not? (4 points)



(2) Visit the following site (below): (6 points)

· What are the tactics used by the “Food Babe”, Joseph Mercola and Mark Hyman to buy their products?

· Ironically, what been found in each of the products they sell?

· In your opinion, do they practice good science? Why or why not?



Part II: The Truth in Science Changes with time…(15 points)


Image result for what theory replaced miasma theory Image result for black death

Image courtesy of:


1. Miasma Theory (10 points)


The miasma theory(  held that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia or the Black Death were caused by a miasma a noxious form of “bad air”, also known as “night air”. The theory held that the origin of epidemics were due to a miasma, emanating from rotting organic matter. Though miasma theory is typically associated with the spread of disease, some academics in the early nineteenth century suggested that the theory extended to other conditions as well, e.g. one could become obese by inhaling the odor of food. The Theory was eventually given up by scientists and physicians after 1880. for references)

Visit the following websites to assist you in answering the questions below:


Miasma theory :



a) The popular children’s song “ring around the rosie” refers to what practice (used to prevent transmission of disease)

b) According to the above article: Some measure of scientific progress is made by disproving an existing theory, but substantially more progress can be made by doing what?

c) Provide at least two reasons why the miasma theory was believable to those in the early 14th century (2 points)

d) What theory replaced the Miasma theory? Using the Miasma example, describe how the truth in science changed over time. (3 points)

e) Locate a website (article or other reference) illustrating another example where the truth in science changed over time. Provide your link here:_____________Briefly describe the outcome of this “change in belief” (3 points)


2. Diseases that threaten us worldwide : (5 points)


Should more have been done to prepare for cholera outbreak in Hati ?

Image result for cholera images Image result for cholera images





Visit the following websites to explore this dangerous pathogen

A. What organism causes cholera?

B. What are the symptoms of cholera?

C. Describe the mode of transmission and how this related to sanitary conditions -How is cholera spread?

D. What might you do to educate citizens?

Visit the World Health Organization to learn about Diseases that threaten us worldwide : (2 points)

E. Describe two other diseases (besides cholera) that could pose a threat worldwide . What is their mode of transmission and how can we, as a society, protect our citizens?




Part III: How can we recognize TRUE science? (25 points)

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1. Fooling ourselves with science: hoaxes, retractions and the public (5 points) “As consumers of science we should always beware the latest and greatest study with new results.” Visit the following website to learn more.

A. What was the hoax that John Bohannon created?

B. What did the Bohannon hoax and LaCour/Green retraction have in common?

C. Why does the author feel we can set ourselves up to be fooled by science? Explain why you agree or disagree. (3 points)


2. Vaccines – Fear and skepticism: (5 points)

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“One of the negative side effects of our totally plugged-in culture is that bad science and misinterpreted results are published quickly and persist long after something has been debunked. Almost everyone has been fooled by bad science in the past, and some bad science has had some very negative impacts…”

Visit the following website to view a few….

a. What effect did the MMR vaccine study have on the public? (2 points)

b. What are your thoughts on vaccines? (3 points)


3. Science, pseudoscience and Quackery (7 points)

Answering the following four questions utilizing your study guide, power point #1 and chapter one of your textbook

Image result for quackery Image result for quackery


a) Describe the difference between real science, pseudoscience and Quackery. (1 point)

b) Search the internet for a website that is illustrating pseudo-science or Quackery. Post your website here:_________. Describe how you feel the public can be misled by this site. (2 points)

c) How do you trust internet sites for credibility and unbiased reporting? What are some warning signs that internet sites should NOT be trusted? (2 points)

d) What might politics have to do with the funding of experimental research? How do you feel this might affect the development of a hypothesis and bias? (2 points)


4. Has the Peer Review process in science been working? (8 points)

Image result for seralini rats


Visit the following website:

a) The infamous Seralini study (November, 2012) claimed what? (2 points)

b) According to the article, anyone referencing the Seralini study as support for their position that GMO has health risks sacrifices what? 2 points)

c) According to the author, what does this study suffer from? (2 points)

d) Do you feel animal right activists would support this study? Why or why not? (2 points)

Part IV: Using Science to Live long, happy healthy lives?………(10 points)


More than half of American adults take some kind of herbal supplement, spending an estimated $30 billion a year in the belief that the supplements have some kind of healthful effect. And, of course, consumers think that what’s in the bottle is what the label promises…..


We all agree that we want to live as long as our quality of life is exceptional or at the least satisfactory. Right? How does science inform us on the effect of Nutrition and supplements in our diet?


1. Searching for the truth in nutrition: (4 points)

Dr. Cohen has become something of a mix of Indiana Jones and Sherlock Holmes in the supplement world. With chemist colleagues in the United States, Brazil, and Europe, he hunts for drugs illegally buried in supplements. Then he goes public. Visit the following website: org/news/2015/08/feature-revealing-hidden-dangers-dietary-supplements” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow noopener”>

A. What scandal did Cohen uncover?

B. What happened in 1994 that changed the way supplements were regulated? (3 points)


2. Who’s at fault? Who’s to blame for the products we purchase off the shelves at our local markets? (6 points)


Image result for pharmaceuticals homeopathy images image courtesy of:

Please visit the following site: com/news/gnc-target-walmart-walgreens-selling-bogus-herbal-supplements-ny-charges-020315.html” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow noopener”>

a. According to the article, what four companies were involved in selling store brand supplements that didn’t contain the labeled substance or contained ingredients that weren’t listed on the label? (2 points)

b. What percentage of Walmart products were cited as actually having DNA from the herb listed on the label?

c. What are some of the contaminants found in these products?

d. What are some of the possible risks of contaminants in supplements? (2 points)

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