Impact Of Pandemics On Global Trade

The Science Behind Animal Mimicry

Imitation is an important mode of learning. This concept goes beyond just copying behavior in that it also involves intentionality. Imitation suggests a link exists between the acquired and modeled behaviors. A child imitating an adult’s behavior is conscious of the underlying similarity (Jones, 2014). Animal behavior offers a useful dimension for observing and understanding mimicry. Animal mimicry occurs at the basic level and has some underlying causes.

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Impact Of Pandemics On Global Trade
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Science suggests the existence of several elements underlying animal mimicry that offer insights into this phenomenon. These elements include resemblance, synchronization, and signal transmission ((Madsen & Persson, 2013). Animals may mimic to achieve resemblance largely for adaptation. An example of such mimicry is when a chameleon imitates the color of its environment. Synchronization entails aligning with the activities of other animals. For instance, a swarm of locusts uses synchronization to move in certain patterns and avoid collisions. According to Jones (2014), signal transmission in mimicry is largely a social behavior. Contagious yawning in animals such as dogs is a form of signal transmission (Madsen & Persson, 2013). In humans, contagious yawning arises from the need to show empathy. In dogs, the reason behind such yawning is unclear as English coursework help suggests (Madsen & Persson, 2013). This observation supports the view that animal mimicry occurs at a basic level and represents an opportunity to observe mimicry in humans.


Jones, D. N. (2014). Predatory personalities as behavioral mimics and parasites: Mimicry–deception theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science9(4), 445-451.

Madsen, E. A., & Persson, T. (2013). Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs. Animal cognition16(2), 233-240.


Types of Computer Crime


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Types of Computer Crime

Amidst the ever-growing adoption of computer technology, computer crime poses a significant threat to various aspects of human activities. Notable examples of computer crime include software piracy, hacking, and loan fraud. Organizations incur significant losses with far-reaching consequences as a result of computer crime. In some cases, the cost of computer crime reverberates throughout a country’s economy. The impact of the different types of crime varies and is difficult to quantify. According to Burkart and McCourt (2019), organizations determine the initial costs in terms of the direct financial costs incurred law homework help.

Software piracy involves using licensed software without purchasing the license or violating the terms of use. This crime undermines the revenue stream of the owner of the software. The cost of this type of computer crime is high. Industry-wide losses are estimated at over $50 billion (Murray, 2019). Hacking refers to illegal intrusion into computer networks. In 2016, FedEx experienced a hacking incidence that resulted in the loss of millions of customer records and other sensitive data (Burkart & McCourt, 2019). Such a costly incidence can threaten the survival of small and large businesses alike. Loan fraud relies on illegal techniques such as identity theft and forgery to obtain loans from financial institutions and other lenders. The case of Lehman Brothers represents an example of fraud in the financial industry with significant implications for the economy. According to Goldmann (2010), Lehman Brothers engaged in various fraudulent practices, including loan fraud, with the aid of sophisticated techniques to avoid detection.



Burkart, P., & McCourt, T. (2019). Why Hackers Win: Power and Disruption in the Network Society. University of California Press.

Goldmann, P. (2010). Financial services anti-fraud risk and control workbook. John Wiley & Sons.

Murray, A. (2019). Information Technology Law: The Law and Society. Oxford University Press.


Impact of Pandemics on Global Trade


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Impact of Pandemics on Global Trade

Pandemics bring uncertainty to the global economy; uncertainty in the business environment undermines trade. The effects of pandemics such as COVID-19 reverberate throughout society (History Homework Help). The resultant shocks across the different domains of society influence important elements of global trade in various ways. This influence can be examined in three major aspects of global trade: supply and demand, distribution, and policies.

COVID-19 offers some insights into the impact of pandemics on supply and demand in global trade. At the onset of the ongoing pandemic, factories had to close operations or scale down. This move resulted in supply-side shocks—a major factor in global trade—as companies could not maintain production. According to the World Trade Organization (2021), restrictions on the movement of people undermined investment, and investors became risk-averse to the extent that subdued what had become a common phenomenon to signify discoveries: “Eureka!” The restrictions also undermined demand as consumers turned to online purchases to avoid crowded markets and shopping malls.

Air travel and other modes of transportation have incurred significant losses during COVID-19. This outcome has shown that pandemics disrupt transport in profound ways. Disruptions in this aspect of global trade imply few goods in the market, affecting consumption. Lower consumption translates into lower trade volume.

Another effect of pandemics occurs in policy environments. COVID-19 has shown that pandemics influence policymakers to adopt bold decisions as part of efforts to limit the spread of COVID-19. An example of bold policy changes involves allowing emergency service providers only to report to work. During COVID-19, this policy has been used as a trade-off between the economy and public health (Piret & Boivin, 2021). The emphasis on people’s health over the economy implies subdued global trade. Pandemics, therefore, have a far-reaching impact on global trade with long-term implications



Piret, J., & Boivin, G. (2021). Pandemics throughout history. Frontiers in microbiology, 11(631736). doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.631736.

World Trade Organization. (2021.). COVID-19 and world trade. Retrieved from

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