With the COVID-19 virus spreading rapidly within
the United States, workers in several key industries are at the frontlines of keeping U.S. residents
healthy, safe, and fed.1
This includes not only doctors
and nurses, but also the custodians who are cleaning hospital rooms, checkout clerks at grocery stores
and pharmacies, scientists racing to develop treatments and a vaccine, and the people who grow, harvest, and transport food across the country. Immigrant workers are over-represented in a number of
these occupations that are vital in the fight against
the coronavirus. While the foreign born represented 17 percent of the 156 million civilians working
in 2018, they accounted for larger shares in some
frontline occupations: 29 percent of physicians, 38
percent of home health aides, and 23 percent of retail-store pharmacists, for example.
Immigrant workers are also over-represented in
some of the non-frontline industries that are being
devastated as more people follow social distancing
guidelines and more states and cities issue shelter-in-place orders. Travel restrictions, orders limiting the operation or mandating the shutdown of
restaurants and bars, and the closure of businesses
deemed nonessential have already led to mass layoffs. In just the first week of serious social distancing
measures across the country, some 3.3 million new
unemployment claims were filed—a rate that while
unprecedented in U.S. history is likely only the tip
of the iceberg.2
Immigrant workers are over-represented in many of the hardest-hit industries: hotels
and restaurants, cleaning services for now-shuttered office buildings, and personal services such
as in-home child care and hair and nail salons. The
economic pain brought by this sudden and dramatic
economic contraction will bring hardship to millions
of Americans in the coming weeks and months. For
many immigrant workers, the hardship will be exacerbated by limited access to safety-net systems and
to federal relief, both for those who are legally present and those who are unauthorized.
The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) estimates 6
million foreign-born workers are employed in vital,
frontline industries; another 6 million work in some
of the industries hardest hit by the fight against
The first section of this fact sheet reviews the roles
immigrant workers serve in industries at the frontlines of the COVID-19 response. The second section
discusses the jobs immigrant workers fill within industries that are laying off large numbers of workers.
MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE | 2 IMMIGRANT WORKERS: VITAL TO THE U.S. COVID-19 RESPONSE, DISPROPORTIONATELY VULNERABLE 1 Immigrant Workers
in Industries Vital to
Immigrant workers (meaning those who were born
outside the United States, regardless of whether
they have since become naturalized citizens, are
legal permanent residents, lack legal status, or are
temporary workers) make up about 17 percent of
But they are over-represented in
some of the industries that are vital to the coronavirus response—comprising 22 percent of scientific
researchers, some of whom may be working on
treatments and a vaccine, and 34 percent of those
providing vital transportation within urban centers.
And they work at high rates within some of the occupations within the health-care field. Overall, the
Migration Policy Institute (MPI) finds that 6 million
foreign-born workers make up 19 percent of the
U.S. workers in such frontline industries. The section
below details the occupations filled by immigrant
workers within some of these broad industries.
A. Health Care
Within health-care and social service industries, immigrant workers make up disproportionate shares
of those in certain occupations. For example, the foreign born comprise 29 percent of physicians, 22 percent of nursing assistants, 29 percent of housekeepers, and 24 percent of janitors and building cleaners
in the health-care industry.5
They are also 38 percent
of home health aides and 25 percent of personal
care aides, who care for aging and disabled patients
in their homes. Such workers must place their own
health at risk to travel to and visit their clients amid
the coronavirus outbreak.
Workers in Industries Vital to the COVID-19 Response, 2018
All Workers Foreign-Born Workers
Health Care and Social Services 18,721,000 3,099,000 17%
Essential Retail and Wholesale: Groceries, pharmacies, and gas
stations 5,196,000 924,000 18%
Manufacturing: Food, medicine, soap/cleaning agents 2,703,000 695,000 26%
Transportation: Truck, rail, and water 2,228,000 385,000 17%
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting 1,957,000 536,000 27%
Transportation: Bus, metro, and taxi drivers 1,110,000 380,000 34%
Postal Service 690,000 93,000 13%
Scientific Research and Development 671,000 146,000 22%
Total Workers in Industries Vital to the COVID-19 Response 33,277,000 6,259,000 19%
Total Civilian Workforce 155,716,000 27,124,000 17%
Source: Migration Policy Institute (MPI) tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2018 American Community Survey (ACS), accessed
March 19, 2020, through Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek,
“IPUMS USA: Version 10.0 [dataset].”
MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE | 3
IMMIGRANT WORKERS: VITAL TO THE U.S. COVID-19 RESPONSE, DISPROPORTIONATELY VULNERABLE
Ten Largest Occupations in the Health-Care and Social Services Industries, 2018
All Workers Foreign-Born Workers
Registered Nurses 2,985,000 472,000 16%
Nursing Assistants 1,363,000 301,000 22%
Personal Care Aides 1,138,000 289,000 25%
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses 815,000 124,000 15%
Physicians 808,000 233,000 29%
Medical and Health Services Managers 648,000 89,000 14%
Medical Assistants 497,000 78,000 16%
Home Health Aides 476,000 182,000 38%
Social Workers, not otherwise classified 425,000 41,000 10%
Receptionists and Information Clerks 410,000 45,000 11%
All Workers in Health-Care and Social Services 18,721,000 3,099,000 17%
Note: Tables 2-5 and 7-9 list the number of workers by occupation within a given industry. Many occupations span several industries, so
the number listed for an occupation within one industry does not represent the full number of workers in that occupation across the
Source: MPI tabulation of the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2018 ACS, accessed March 19, 2020 through IPUMS.
B. Essential Retail and
Wholesale: Grocery Stores,
Pharmacies, and Food
Immigrants represent large shares of the workers
who are keeping essential businesses such as grocery stores and pharmacies open amid the crisis.
These retail workers have faced long, stressful shifts
as Americans stock up on food and medicine, quickly emptying store shelves. And retail workers are
often in close contact with large numbers of customers, placing them at risk of contracting COVID-19
themselves. Within essential retail businesses, immigrant workers form particularly high shares of pharmacists (23 percent), butchers and meat processors
(23 percent), and drivers (21 percent). Foreign-born
workers are also key in the food wholesale process,
comprising 68 percent of those who grade and sort
agricultural products and 42 percent of food packers
Immigrants represent large shares of
the workers who are keeping essential
businesses such as grocery stores and
pharmacies open amid the crisis.With most office workers across the country now
working from home, local mandates to close “nonessential” workplaces, and apartment buildings scaling
back services for public health reasons, the number
of workers required to staff and clean buildings has
been greatly reduced. Immigrants account for 38
percent of all building services workers, including 59
percent of maids and housekeepers, 41 percent of
janitors, and 21 percent of maintenance and repair
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!