The cardiovascular center is under the influence of the autonomic nervous system and it involves cardiac output regulation. It is found in the medulla oblongata, and three centers namely the cardio accelerator center, the vasomotor center, and the cardioinhibitory center. The cardio accelerator center triggers heart function by heart rate and stroke volume regulation through sympathetic nervous activation from the cardiac accelerator nerve. The cardioinhibitory center decreases the stroke volume and heart rate by the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.The vasomotor center regulates the contraction of the smooth muscle in the tunica media. Variation in the blood vessel parameters such as size, affect the blood flow blood pressure, vascular resistance, that imparts on the cardiac output. The neurotransmitter norepinephrine mediates the impulses in the heat conduction. The cardiovascular center discharges impulses to the heart upon stimulation by norepinephrine, epinephrine, changes in pH, increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide which is recognized by the chemoreceptors (found in the carotid body and aortic arch) and baroreceptors.
Baroreceptors are the stretch receptors found in chambers of the heart and blood vessels, which detects the change in the blood vessel diameter. The signals are transmitted to the cardiovascular center and based on the impulse, the blood pressure is increased or decreased. Vascular baroreceptors are is prevalent in the sinus within the carotid arteries and aorta. When there is an elevation in the blood pressure, the baroreceptors detect the change, and action potentials is fired at a higher rate. When there is a fall in the blood pressure, action potential firing by these receptors is reduced. This homeostasis of blood pressure is regulated by the reflex mechanism of these receptors.
At the times of hypertension or elevated blood pressure, the baroreceptors found on the blood vessel detects the pressure change and sends impulses to the cardiovascular center of the brain. The transmission is based on the release of neurotransmitters by an increased action potential. The cardiovascular center processes these impulses and sends signals to the parasympathetic system of the heart. The parasympathetic nerves release acetylcholine, which slows the heart rate, and thus cardiac output decreases. Sympathetic system activity falls and this causes the blood vessels to relax. Thus, the blood pressure is greatly reduced and attains the normal state. When there is hypotension, or the blood pressure decreases, the action potential generated by the baroreceptor is greatly decreased and thus the parasympathetic activity is decreased. The sympathetic activity is increased with the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine and increases the heart rate. Thus it causes the constriction of the blood vessel and this increases the blood pressure.The baroreceptors is available in the right atrium, and venae cavae and senses the change in the blood pressure as the blood flows into the heart from circulation. The rate of blood that enters and leaves the heart has to be the same. The rate of blood that enters and leaves the heart has to be the same. When the rate of blood enters to the right atrium at a faster rate than its ejection from the left ventricle, the baroreceptors will trigger the cardiovascular centers to upregulate sympathetic signaling, and heart rate is increased to decrease increased atrial pressure by this atrial reflex.
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