Epidemiology constitutes Descriptive, Analytical, and Interventional studies. One obtains knowledge in specific aspects on studying these aspects, defining a relationship between the disease outbreak, cause, and intervention.
Descriptive studies give information about the distribution of the disease under study, its occurrence, and pervasiveness. That is, it aims at describing the disease.
Analytical studies include analyzing the cause of chronic or infectious diseases and their associated risk factors or complications.
Interventional epidemiology studies the effectiveness of the approaches undertaken to control and prevent the disease.
The epidemiologic triad
The epidemiologic triad or epi-triad aims at establishing a relationship between the cause, occurrence, distribution, and effects of the disease on the host. Epidemiologists used the triad, traditionally, to analyze infectious diseases alone. Nevertheless, of late, they have expanded it to non-infectious chronic disorders and accidents, as well. The epi-triad takes three aspects into consideration- the agent, host, and the environment and studies the interaction between them. These three constituents, as shown in the diagram, are placed at the vertices of the triangle.
The first component or the agent is a disease-causing pathogen. It can either be a virus, or microbes like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or helminths, which can cause several diseases. They can either be parasitic or non-parasitic. However, to expand the definition of host beyond infectious diseases, agents also include certain physical and chemicals factors. These may be asbestos, heavy metals, cigarette smoke, and others that cause non-infectious, chronic disorders.
The second component, or the host, refers to a human who has contracted a particular infection. However, the person might not develop disease even on contracting the pathogen. Infected hosts can be either non-permissive or dead-end, reservoir host and amplifying host. A reservoir host carries the infectious organism for long periods without manifesting any symptoms, whereas the amplifying hosts allow the pathogen to multiply within it. When the host does not permit either, it is called a non-permissive host. However, the severity of infectious disease and its prognosis depends on the host’s age, sex, comorbidities, genetic abnormalities, or any predisposition to other chronic disorders.
The environment is the third component that consists of all the factors external to the host. It includes physical factors like geographical location, climate, and socio-economic factors like sanitation conditions, resources and healthcare facilities, and others.
The fourth component, called a vector, is incorporated either as a part of the host or individually as a vector-borne disease. In such a case, controlling the multiplication of vectors can stop the disease outbreak because the chain of infection in vector-borne diseases largely depends on the availability of vectors.
Types of epidemiological studies
Epidemiological studies are of 4 types, namely, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, and interventional studies. Of these, the application of cross-sectional and case-control studies is more widespread.
Cross-sectional studies analyze the conditions prevailing in a population at a particular period. Either the epidemiologist subjects the entire population under study or considers a group of individuals representing a population. For instance, Coggon et al. established vitamin status as a causal factor in cataracts through cross-sectional studies.
Case-control studies find a relationship between cases and control groups. The former is a term for addressing people’s symptoms of a particular disease, whereas the latter consists of people not exhibiting any conditions related to it. A thorough comparison between the two groups helps to determine the causal factor of the disease. For instance, Herbst and Scully reported an unusual cancer development in a group of adolescent girls through case-control studies. They concluded that the mothers who underwent hormone therapy during pregnancy gave birth to girls having a predisposition to cancer.
Cohort studies check for a relationship between the development of a particular disease in a population and the people’s behavior under study. For instance, such a study shows smokers are more prone to lung cancer than non-smokers.
Intervention studies include observational analysis on a particular population followed by random sampling into two separate groups. One of the groups acts as a control while the scientists intervene with the other. For instance, during drug trials, the drug is administered to only one out of the two groups.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!